General relativity, or simply general relativity, is considered to be the greatest scientific breakthrough of the 20th century. The theory published by Albert Einstein in 1915 changed our understanding of Newtonian gravity as a force between bodies into a curvature of the structure of space and time – space-time. But the theory isn’t entirely foolproof, and there are situations, especially in the world of black holes and quantum physics, where cracks appear.

According to the principles of general relativity, black holes should be completely inert objects with singularities in their nuclei at which the known laws of physics collapse.

Professor Stephen Hawking was the first to damage this model in the early 1970s when he revealed his Hawking radiation theory.

Based on his theoretical calculations, quantum effects near the event horizon of a black hole – the point of no return – allow thermal radiation to escape into space.

The process is also known as “blackbody radiation” and essentially shows that black holes are not completely black.

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Einstein even famously railed against the “upside-down” world of quantum physics for believing it was too chaotic and unprincipled.

With no way to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics, the Sussex researchers used what is known as effective field theory (EFT) to study the singularity of the black hole.

The theory is that gravity is very weak at the quantum level, which allows for some calculations that would otherwise fall apart given the strong quantum gravity.

Dr. Calmet said, “If you only look at black holes within general relativity, you can show that they have a singularity at their centers in which the laws of physics as we know them must collapse.

“We hope that when quantum field theory is integrated into general relativity, we can find a new description of black holes.”

With the help of EFT, Dr. Calmet and his colleague find mathematical evidence for pressure in a black hole.

According to astrophysicist Paul Sutter, this is the same pressure that hot air exerts on the inside of a balloon.

However, since the model only works with weak quantum gravity while neglecting strong gravity, it cannot be used to fully explain the behavior of black holes.

Dr. Calmet added, “Our work is a step in that direction, and while the pressure exerted by the black hole we have studied is tiny, the fact that it is there opens up many new opportunities for the study of astrophysics and science include particle physics and quantum physics. “